CHEMICAL AND PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY
The advantages of nickel, titanium and cobalt alloys over other metallic materials are particularly evident in the construction of equipment for chemical and petrochemical processes. The chemical industry needs a wide variety of materials which protect their equipment against corrosion.
Alloys from the INCOLOY and INCONEL series have many applications within the petrochemical process industry, due to their outstanding high temperature corrosion resistance. Petrochemical products have created a demand for materials that resist the synthesis in Fischer-Tropsch reactors (The Fischer–Tropsch reactor is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons) and associated equipment, so INCOLOY and INCONEL alloys are predominant in technologies that capture and convert coal, gas and biomass into fuel. Designed for use in petrochemical, chemical and thermal processing applications, INCOLOY800, INCOLOY 800h & INCOLOY 800ht provides an exceptional level of high-temperature corrosion resistance in oxidation, sulfidation, carburisation and nitridation environments. In addition to preventing thermal distortion and embrittlement, the alloys has excellent stress-rupture strengths and a high resistance to carburisation and cyclic oxidation. These characteristics combine to make the alloys the material of choice for many severe applications, including ID-finned pyrolysis tubing in high-severity ethylene furnaces.
Corrosion-resistant alloys of nickel, titanium or special stainless steel have successful applications in the following processes: oil refining, production of phosphoric and superphosphoric acids, phosphate fertilizer, contact with oxidizing and reducing media, sulphuric acid, nitric acid, acetic acid, chlorine, caustic soda, salt production, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) production for plastics, synthesis of organic compounds or production of paper and pulp. Pipes, valves or parts for pumps.
Construction of Industrial Furances
The most important challenges for metallic materials used in industrial furnace construction are high-temperature strength and resistance to high-temperature corrosion. For these reasons, heat-resistant ferritic materials and high-temperature resistance nickel-based materials are used in many applications - even in atmospheres with high carbon and nitrogen levels. At working temperatures above 850°C, high-nickel alloys should always be used because they retain sufficient strength, in some cases even to temperatures as high as 1,200 °C (2,190 °F). High-temperature materials such as INCONEL 625 are used in fastening systems and linings. Wires made from nickel-containing materials are used, for example, in construction of furnace conveyor belts, burner hemispheres made from wire mesh or as coatings in demisters and filters, in addition to fastening elements in environments where chlorine is present.
Production of drinking water or factory water for industrial or power plant use from seawater is gaining increasing prominence. The salt content of heated seawater in a typical desalination plant can reach as much as 40 grams per litre, while the water temperature is as much as 50 °C (122 °F). Titanium tubes can even be deployed where salt concentrations are the highest and the corrosion stress the greatest.
Flue Gas Desulphurization
Iron-chromium-nickel and nickel-chrome alloys used in flue gas esulphurization. Corrosion resistant alloy sheet and strip are coming into use in coal-fired power plants, waste incinerators and ships.
Heat exchangers are used for heating, cooling and reheating of liquids, gases or air. Nickel Alloys, Titanium, DUPLEX 2205, Stainless Steel 17-4PH materials are used in plate or tubular heat exchangers.